Course Summary

    Dr Simon Barnard & David Cartwright (12:36)

    In this interview, David Cartwright asks Dr Barnard about the procedures involved in pre-school vision assessment, and advancements in refraction and strabismus screening techniques, including the utilisation of new technologies.

    The eyes of a newborn child continue to develop rapidly postnatally; pre-school children should be routinely checked to identify problems early on that could lead to vision problems such as amblyopia. Discovering any visual problems as soon as possible, while the eyes are still developing, often requires detecting signs and risk factors not easily noticeable to non-eye care professionals. Due to the young age of patients, tests can be hard to complete accurately, or indeed, at all.

    Dr Simon Barnard practises in North London and is Associate Professor at the Department of Optometry & Visual Science, Hadassah College, Jerusalem where he is responsible for a number of Masters degree courses including one on Paediatric Optometry.

    First published in DOCET OQ89 (2014).

    • Open allClose all

    • Instructions: Clicking on the section name will show / hide the section.

    • View only 'Topic 1'

      Learning objectives

      7.1.4 To understand the various techniques used in assessing the vision, refractive error and binocular status of infants, including information about the latest digital screening techniques.

      • View only 'Topic 2'
      • View only 'Topic 3'

        More information and references


        • Barnard S, et al. 2013. A novel device for real time automated strabismus detection and pupil analysis. Research poster presentation (88). American Academy of Optometry conference, Seattle, USA.
        • Grounds A. 1996. Amblyopia: in Pediatric Eye Care. Eds: Simon Barnard & David Edgar, Blackwell Science, Oxford.
        • Thompson JR, et al. 1991. The incidence and prevalence of amblyopia detected in childhood. Public Health 105 (6), 455 – 462.
        • Williams C, et al. 2008. Prevalence and risk factors for common vision problems in children: Data from the ALSPAC study. British Journal of Ophthalmology 92 (7), 959 – 964.
        • View only 'Topic 4'


          Please give your feedback on this course. Click on the link below to launch the evaluation form.