Section

  • CommunicationOcular disease imageAssessment of Visual Function

    No CET Points

    Physiology & Pathology - Ocular is one of the modules forming 'Part 1 Assessment' in DOCET's series 'The Ageing Eye' and is designed as a companion piece to 'Physiology & Pathology - Systemic'.

    This programme looks at the effects of ageing on a normal, healthy eye, including aspects of anatomy and visual performance. It also considers the identification, investigation and management of common ocular abnormalities that may be encountered in everyday practice. The programme features interviews with experts in the field and a wide range of clinical images.

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      Learning objectives

      • 1.2.4 To improve the understanding of physiological and common pathological changes in the eye in the older population; to be able to explain them more effectively to patients and offer appropriate advice.
      • 2.6.2 To improve the understanding of referral pathways for common ocular conditions in the older population and to know when to refer appropriately, understanding both national and local protocols.
      • 6.1.5 To improve the recognition of common ocular pathologies in the older population, such as cataract, glaucoma and AMD; to be able to differentiate patients with pathological changes from those with normal age-related physiological changes and so refer them appropriately.
      • 7.1.5 To improve the understanding of various aspects of visual function and how it changes in the older population, such as contrast sensitivity, visual acuity, colour vision and visual fields; to be able to assess them more effectively and differentiate normal age-related changes from pathological changes.
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        Unit 1 - Introduction (~3 mins)

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          Unit 2 - How the eye ages (~16 mins)

          References
          M Ozdemir and H Temizdemir. Age- and gender-related tear function changes in normal population - Eye (2010) 24, 79–83 
          Loewenfeld IE: “Simple, central” anisocoria: A common condition, seldom recognized. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol, American Academy of Ophthalmology, San Francisco, 1977;82:832–839
          Vedamurthy I, Harrison WW, Liu Y, Cox I and  Schor CM. The Influence of First Near-Spectacle Reading Correction on Accommodation and Its Interaction with Convergence - Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009 Sep;50(9):4215-22
          JS Pointer. The presbyopic add. II. Agerelated trend and a gender difference - Ophthalmic Physiol Opt.1995;15(4):241-148
          JS Pointer. Gender-related optical aspects of the onset of presbyopia - Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2002 Mar;22(2):126-9
          Weale R. A. (1963a) The Ageing Eye. Lewis, London 
          Garway-Heath D F, Wollstein G, Hitchings R A. Ageing changes of the optic nerve head in relation to open angle glaucoma. Br J Ophthalmol 1997;81:840-845
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            Unit 3 - How the ageing eye performs (~10 mins)

            References
            de Haan V. Onderzoekingen Naar de Invloed van de Leeftijd op de Gezichtsscherpte [Research on the Influence of Age on Visual Acuity]. Doctoral dissertation, Utrecht, 1862
            Klein R, Klein BEK, Linton KIP and DeMets, DL. The Beaver Dam Eye Study: Visual acuity. Ophthalmol 98, 1310-1315,1991
            Jackson GR, Owsley C and McGwin G. Ageing and dark adaptation, Vision Research, Volume 39, Issue 23, November 1999, Pages 3975-3982
            Sekular R, Owsley C and Hutman L. Addressing spatial vision in older people. Amer J Optom 59: 961968,198
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              Unit 4 - Common age-related eye conditions: Glaucoma (~6 mins)

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              Unit 5 - Common age-related eye conditions: Cataract (~8 mins)

              References
              Michon JJ, Lau J, Wing SC, Ellwein LB. Prevalence of visual impairment, blindness, and cataract surgery in the Hong Kong elderly - Br J Ophthalmol 2002;86:133–139
              Jun G, Guo H, Klein BE, Klein R, Wang JJ, et al. (2009) EPHA2 is associated with age-related cortical cataract in mice and humans. PLoS Genet. 2009 Jul;5(7)
              Leske MC, Chylack LT, Suh-Yuh Wu. The Lens Opacities Case-Control Study: Risk Factors for Cataract. Arch Ophthalmol. 1991;109(2):244-251 
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                Unit 6 - Common age-related eye conditions: AMD & Dry eye (~7 mins)

                References
                Owen CG, Jarrar Z, Wormald R, Cook DG, Fletcher AE, Rudnicka AR. The estimated prevalence and incidence of late stage age related macular degeneration in the UK. The British Journal of Ophthalmology. 2012; 96, 752–756

                Moss SE, Klein R, Klein BK. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Dry Eye Syndrome. Arch Ophthalmol. 2000;118(9):1264-1268

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                Unit 7 - General referral guidelines (~3 mins)

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                More information

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                Evaluation

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